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This philosophical essay draws a distinction between harm to animals inflicted by abusive individuals on factory farms, and harm inherent in the industrial farming system. The author observes that animal advocates often find themselves on the defensive when debates over factory farming are reframed by skeptics as debates over the good character of farmers. He defines and provides examples of other systemic categories of harm that animal advocates can use to shift the burden of justifying factory farming to those who are skeptical about its harmfulness.
Regulatory acceptance and use of 3R models for pharmaceuticals and chemicals: Expert opinions on the state of affairsSubmitted on Jul 18, 2014 (Original item from 2014) Advocacy Strategies | General Animal Protection | Research Tools and Methods
Panels of experts were assembled to identify barriers to acceptance of 3R pharmaceutical and chemical testing models in the EU, and how to address the barriers, within the affected industries and in broader regulatory and cultural contexts. Chemical experts were more divided than pharmaceutical experts on the most significant barriers. The experts felt that better training and data on the new methods was needed, and called for subsidies. Regulatory changes are also needed to encompass the new procedures. The general public needs to feel sure that the new methods are safe, but less harmful to animals.
Dead or Alive? Comparing Costs and Benefits of Lethal and Non-Lethal Human–Wildlife Conflict Mitigation on Livestock FarmsSubmitted on Jul 17, 2014 (Original item from 2014) Farmed Animals | General Animal Protection | Wildlife and Exotics
This study compared lethal versus non-lethal methods of predator control (of jackals, caracals and leopards) on 11 South African livestock farms over a 3-year period. Non-lethal methods included guardian dogs, guardian alpacas, and mesh collars to prevent fatal throat bites. Non-lethal control on average was cheaper and as effective or better at reducing losses compared to lethal controls. More than 3/4 of the participating farmers continued to use non-lethal controls only, or in combination with lethal controls, at their own cost, after the study.
This study compared length of time to adoption and adopter profiles of dogs adopted from a shelter to dogs adopted from a foster home program. Fostered dogs took longer to adopt, but returns were lower. The majority of foster dog adopters first learned about the dog online, while shelter adopters first learned through a visit. Foster dog adopters also took more time to think over the adoption decision, and came from a broader area than in-shelter adopters.
Gender, Class, and Social Movement Outcomes: Identity and Effectiveness in Two Animal Rights CampaignsSubmitted on Jul 15, 2014 (Original item from 1999) Advocacy Strategies | Entertainment Animals | General Animal Protection | Wildlife and Exotics
This study explores how gender and class impacts the interactions of animal advocates with their target audiences. The same advocacy group established more credibility and impacted more opinions with circus patrons than with hunters. After conducting in-depth interviews with all participants, the author found the circus was a relatively gender-neutral context, but that hunters saw themselves and hunting in stereotypically "male" terms (rational, scientific, outdoorsy, physical), and further, dismissed advocates in stereotypically "female" terms (over-emotional, uninformed, urban).
This study calculated the impact on human health, regional agriculture, and the environment of a 50% reduction in the consumption of meat and dairy products in the EU, replaced by grains. Greenhouse gases would be reduced 25-40%, the use of imported soy meal would drop by 75%, and the EU would become a major grain exporter. Human health would benefit due to reduced cardiovascular disease, among other benefits. Meat and dairy production have high environmental footprints, and diet is an important factor in the reduction of greenhouse gases.
This report summarizes results from Year 7 of the Animal Tracker, an annual survey of U.S. adults regarding their attitudes and behavior toward animals. In summary, the most recent survey continues to show strong support for humane education and many other animal advocacy tactics. However, there appears to be a slight erosion in this support compared with survey results from 2011 and 2008 and fewer people are engaging in animal-friendly behavior compared with previous years.
This study analyzed the conditions sea turtles preferred for nesting at an eastern India location that is the nesting site of about 15% of the world population of Olive Ridley sea turtles. The turtles preferred sites away from and undisturbed by humans, with low salinity of beach water and sand, a beach of medium width and mild slope, and sand of medium coarseness. Mass nesting ("arribada") events that are important for recovering reduced population numbers were triggered by higher water levels, produced by combined tide and wind conditions.
Continuing our discussion of why campaign targeting is important, HRC co-founder and Executive Director Che Green explores how decision fatigue can impact responses. He also considers whether simplification of choice should be applied to animal advocacy as a whole.
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