Male chicks have long been an unwanted by-product of the egg industry and face a most unpleasant end after hatching. This article summarizes research out of Germany that produced a new way to determine the sex of chicks by analyzing the allantoic fluid before they hatch. Using this method, gender differences can be detected as early as 9 days into incubation, which, the researchers claim, is before the onset of pain perception.
This report explores the risk of exposure to zoonotic diseases—those passed from animals to humans—that stems from animal agriculture. The paper looks at foodborne pathogens as well as influenza viruses, and examines the impact on both farmed animals and humans. It concludes by offering recommendations for tackling this global threat.
This article explores attitudes towards factory farming and cognitive dissonance. The research showed that anti-factory farming literature was more likely to be well-received by those who initially voiced their commitment for its central premise (a pro-welfare position), than by those who were not asked to give their opinion on the topic. The authors suggest that these findings are of use for animal advocates who, they say, should frame appeals to capitalize on what most individuals already believe.
Although halal and kosher meats are similar in many respects, there are also key differences. One main distinction is that unlike halal, kosher guidelines require that animals be conscious prior to slaughter. As a result, animals destined to become halal meat are permitted to be stunned pre-slaughter, while their counterparts in kosher slaughterhouses are not. This paper provides a thorough review of the technologies used in halal and kosher slaughter and the associated animal welfare concerns.
The foot health of dairy cows is considered to be chief among the welfare concerns for these animals. This study examined several factors including dairy farmers’ attitudes on the topic, their intentions to take corrective action, and their motivations and barriers for addressing foot disorders. The findings showed that 70% of farmers intended to act, however most also said they were satisfied with the quality of foot health at their farm. Cost-effectiveness was identified as a more important factor than animal welfare, and labor efficiency and the delayed realization of improvements were put forth as possible barriers. Interestingly, a quarter of the farmers surveyed did not believe cows could experience pain.
This paper presents some useful findings on how an individual’s belief system impacts their attitudes towards farmed animals. The researchers tested views of farmed animals for three types of belief systems: social justice, traditional, and wealth. The results showed that individuals who identified with the social justice orientation were more likely to have a positive attitude towards farmed animals. These individuals were also more apt to have a lower level of trust in agricultural producers and to believe that the responsibility for farmed animal welfare rests with a variety of individuals, including consumers.
Using a judgement bias experiment, this study examined what long-term effects past neglect has on the mood of resident goats at an animal sanctuary. The research compared two groups of goats, those with and without a history of cruelty. The goats were trained to distinguish between locations that either had or did not have a reward and then were observed using ambiguous locations. Their behavior was assessed and the findings showed that the rescued goats displayed positive moods (females) or similar moods as goats who did not experience neglect (males), thus indicating that after several years at sanctuary goats are likely to recover from past exploitation.
This paper offers a host of information about UK adolescents’ attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and behavioral intentions concerning the welfare of farmed animals. While those surveyed indicated that they care about farmed animal welfare, they acknowledged that they know very little about the topic including about product labels. The results also showed that respondents were more likely to shift responsibility to farmers or government, rather than recognizing the role they play as consumers. This suggests that advocates in the area of farmed animal welfare may be well-served by trying to increase awareness among youth about the individual impact they have on welfare standards.
This piece summarizes information from two studies that looked at Millennials’ attitudes and behaviors towards beef. Among other findings, these studies showed that compared to previous generations, Millennials—defined roughly as individuals born between 1980 and 2000—know much less about buying and cooking beef, and are also limiting their children’s consumption of this food.
Findings from Gallup’s annual Environment poll conducted in March of 2013 indicate that almost half (47%) of individuals in the U.S. think that the government is falling short on environmental protection. This result has however been higher in past—it was at its peak (68%) in 1992 when Gallup began collecting data on the topic and is within one percentage point of the lowest finding on record. Public perception studies such as these are important for animal advocates to keep in mind as animal agriculture’s significant contribution to environmental degradation gains increasing awareness and opportunities for government regulations in response surface.
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